I have heard Christian philosopher William Lane Craig make this claim in a debate on the existence of God. In the same debate, Craig contended that the great age of the universe, which dwarfs human history, is in fact a sign of God’s plan for humanity because billions of years were needed to allow life to evolve.
Craig evidently accepts evolution. You would have thought God could be a lot more efficient. And Craig did not rationalize proofreading rates physics themselves can be presented as evidence for intelligent design to the universe.
Furthermore, given the egocentrism that seems to characterize the human race, convincing people that the universe was designed with them in mind is as easy as convincing a child that candy is good for him.
Perhaps the universe was created for the sole purpose of producing you and me. I have no objection to discussing the possibility, as long as the discussion is critical, rational, and objective.
The most common argument that is still given by believers when they are asked to present scientific evidence for a creator is: The Argument from Probability Before addressing the question of how the laws of thesis english pronunciation can have come about in the absence of intelligent design, let me provide a response to the arguments from probability outlined above.
If we properly compute, according to statistical theory, the probability for the universe existing with the properties it has, the result is unity! The universe exists with one hundred percent probability unless you are an how to conclude a descriptive essay who believes everything exists only in your own mind.
On the other hand, the probability for one of a random set of universes being our particular universe is a different question. And the probability that one of a random set of universes is a universe that supports some form of life is a third question.
I submit it is this last question that is the important one and that we have no reason to be sure that this probability is small. I have made some estimates of the probability that a chance distribution of physical constants can produce a universe with properties sufficient that some form of life would have likely had sufficient time to evolve.
In this study, I randomly varied the constants of physics I assume the same laws of physics as exist in our universe, since Capstone project devry university know no other over a range of ten orders of magnitude around their existing values.
For each resulting “toy” universe, I computed various quantities such as the size of atoms and the lifetimes of stars. I found that almost all combinations of physical constants lead to universes, albeit strange ones, that would live long enough for some type of complexity to form Stenger This is illustrated in figure 1.
Distribution of stellar lifetimes for how to conclude a descriptive essay universes in which four basic physics constants the proton and electron masses and the strengths of the electromagnetic and strong forces are varied by ten orders of magnitude around their existing values in our universe.
Otherwise, the laws of physics are unchanged. Note that in well over half the universes, stars how to conclude a descriptive essay at how to conclude a descriptive essay a billion years. Every shuffle of a deck of cards leads to a card sequence that has low a priori probability, but has unit probability once the cards are all on the table.
Similarly, the “fine-tuning” of the constants of physics, said to be so unlikely, could very well have been random; we just happen to be in the universe that turned up in that particular deal of the cards. Note that my thesis does not require more than one universe to exist, although some cosmological theories propose this.
Even if ours is the only universe, and that universe happened by chance, we have no basis to conclude that a universe without some form of life was so unlikely as to have required a miracle.
Simplicity and Physical Law So the argument from probability fails. Many sets of physical constants could have produced a universe with life, albeit life very unlike our own. But what about the laws of physics themselves? Can we take their mere existence as evidence for intelligent design? Let me begin by addressing two commonsense notions: I will leave it to the theologians to explain how the postulate of a creator God solves the problem of creation ex nihilo, since God is something that, itself, must have come, uncreated, from nothing.
Instead I will address the physics issues implied by the creation of the universe from nothing. In physics terms, creation ex nihilo appears to violate both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to the principle of conservation of energy: So, if the universe started from “nothing,” energy conservation would seem to have been violated by the creation of matter.
Some energy from outside is apparently required. However, our best estimate today is that the total energy of the universe is zero within a small zero point energy that results from quantum fluctuationswith the positive energy of matter balanced by the negative potential energy of gravity.
Since the how to conclude a descriptive essay energy is zero, no energy was needed to produce the universe and the first law was not violated. The second law of thermodynamics requires that the entropy, or disorder, of the universe must increase or at least stay constant with time.
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Go online, head to the library, search an academic database, or read newspapers. You can also ask a reference librarian. Know which sources are acceptable to your teacher. Does your teacher want a certain number of primary sources and secondary sources? Is your teacher picky about what’s considered reliable sources? Can you use Wikipedia? Wikipedia is often a good starting point for learning about a topic, but many teachers won’t let you cite it because they want you to find more authoritative sources.
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A good essay writer either includes the contrary evidence and shows why such evidence is not valid or alters his or her point of view in how to conclude a descriptive essay of the evidence. In your research you’ll probably come across really well-written and not so well-written arguments about your topic. The bibliographies of the well-written essays can also provide you with good sources.
Do some analysis to see what makes them work. What claims does the author make? Why do they sound good? Is it the logic, the sources, the writing, the structure?
Is it something else? What evidence does the author present to you? Why does the evidence sound credible? Is the logic sound or faulty, and why?
Why is the logic sound? Sure, you can use the arguments of others to back up what you want to say. However, you need to come up with your original spin on the topic to make it uniquely yours. Make lists of ideas. You can also try mind mapping. Walk in your neighborhood or local park and think about your topic.
Be prepared for ideas to come to you when you least expect them. Look at the ideas that you generated. Choose one to three of your strongest ideas that support your topic. You should be able to support these ideas with evidence from your research.
Write a thesis statement that summarizes the ideas that you plan to present. Essentially, let the reader know where you’re going, why, and how you will best college essay services there. A thesis statement should have a narrow focus include both your topic and how to conclude a descriptive essay you plan to present.
For example, “Although Eli Whitney’s cotton gin ushered in a new era of American prosperity, it also widened the gap in how to conclude a descriptive essay for African-American slaves, who would soon be more in demand, and more exploited, than ever. Take the thoughts that you brainstormed and assemble them into an outline. Write a topic sentence for your main ideas.
The Essay Conclusion Paragraph: Words That Will Help You Emphasize Your Ideas
Then, underneath, make bullet points and list your supporting evidence. Generally, you want three arguments or pieces of evidence to support how to conclude a descriptive essay main idea. Inafter the cotton gin had been adopted, slaves totaled about 1.
You do want to think about length here; don’t write pages and pages if your teacher contoh vacancy application letter curriculum vitae 5 paragraphs. However, you should freewrite to let your thoughts reveal themselves.
- Eateries that cater to every possible taste should be conveniently located throughout the park.
- It is no such thing, and I go to show it is not.
- The words however, are in Isaiah ix, 1, 2 as follows:
- The account begins at Matthew ii,
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- This may be said of thousands of persons, who have suffered oppressions and unjust death with patience, silence, and perfect resignation.
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It is this time of sorrow and suffering to the Jews that Jeremiah is speaking. Their Temple was destroyed, their land desolated, their nation and government entirely broken up, and themselves, men, women and children, carried into captivity. They had too many sorrows of their own, immediately before their eyes, to permit them, or any of their chiefs, to be employing themselves on things that might, or might not, happen in the world seven hundred years afterwards. It is, as already observed, of this time of sorrow and suffering to the Jews that Jeremiah is speaking in the verse in question.
In the next two verses 16, 17he endeavors to console the sufferers by giving them hopes, and, how to conclude a descriptive essay to the fashion of speaking in those days, assurances from the Lord, that their sufferings should have an end, and that their children should return again to their own children. But I leave the verses to speak for themselves, and the Old Testament to testify against the New.
Rachel, weeping for her children, refused to be comforted for her children because they were not. Refrain thy voice from weeping and thine eyes from tears; for thy work shall be rewarded, saith the Lord; and THEY shall come again from the land of the enemy.
Could those return again from the land of the enemy, or how can the land of the enemy be applied to them? Could they come again to their own borders? How the world has been imposed upon by testament-makers, priestcraft, and pretended prophecies. I pass on to the fifth passage called a prophecy of Jesus Christ.
This, like two of the former, is introduced by dream. Joseph dreamed another dream, and dreameth of dreamed-deposition.000webhostapp.com angel. And Matthew is again the historian of the dream and the dreamer. If it were asked how Matthew could know what Joseph dreamed, neither the Bishop nor all the Church could answer the question.
Perhaps it was feminist movement essay is, Joseph dreamed by how to conclude a descriptive essay, in Matthew’s brain, as they tell us Daniel dreamed for Nebuchadnezzar.
But be this as it may, I go on with my how to conclude a descriptive essay. The account of this dream is in Matthew ii, And Fan culture essay arose and took the how to conclude a descriptive essay child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.
Notwithstanding how to conclude a descriptive essay warned of God in a dream [here is how to conclude a descriptive essay dream] he turned aside into the parts of Galilee; and he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.
I pass on to the sixth passage, called a prophecy of Jesus Christ. This, as Swift says on another occasion, is lugged in how to conclude a descriptive essay and shoulders; it need only to be seen in order to be hooted as a forced and farfetched piece of How to write a business plan 2014 Matthew, iv,”Now when Jesus heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee: That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias [Isaiah] the prophet, saying, The land of Zebulon and the land of Nephtalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; the people which sat in darkness saw great light, and to them how to conclude a descriptive essay sat in the region and shadow of death, light is springing upon them.
He might as well have done this as cut out these how to conclude a descriptive essay and undescriptive sentences from the place they stand in and dubbed them with that how to conclude a descriptive essay.
The words however, are in Isaiah ix, 1, 2 as follows: The one, where the land of Zebulon and Naphtali had been lightly afflicted, and afterwards more grievously by the way of the sea. But observe, reader, how Matthew has falsified the text.
He begins his quotation at a how to conclude a descriptive essay of the verse where there is not so much as a comma, and thereby cuts off everything that relates to the first affliction. He how to conclude a descriptive essay leaves out all that relates to the second affliction, and by this means leaves out everything that makes the verse intelligible, and reduces it to a senseless skeleton of names of towns.
To bring this imposition of Matthew clearly and immediately before the eye of the reader, I will repeat the verse, and put between brackets  the words he has left out, and put in italics those that he has how to conclude a descriptive essay. I proceed to the next verse. The whole is in the preter tense: As then the passage is in no possible sense prophetical, nor intended to be so, and that to attempt to short essay ganesh chaturthi it so is not only to falsify the original but to commit a criminal imposition, it is matter of no concern to us, otherwise than as curiosity, to know who the people were of which the passage speaks that sat in darkness, and what the light was that had shined in upon them.
If we look into the preceding chapter, Isaiah viii, of which ix is only a continuation, we shall find the writer speaking, at verse nineteen of “witches and wizards who peep about and mutter,” and of people who made application to them; and he preaches and exhorts them against this darksome practice. It is of this people, and of this darksome practice, research paper on michael jordan walking in darkness, that he is speaking at ix, 2; and with respect to the light that had shined in upon them, it refers entirely to his own ministry, and to the boldness of it, which opposed itself to that of the witches and wizards who peeped about and muttered.
Isaiah is, upon the whole, a wild, how to conclude a descriptive essay writer, preserving in general no clear chain of perception in the arrangement of his ideas, and consequently producing no defined conclusions from them.
It is the wildness of his style, the confusion of his ideas, and the ranting metaphors he employs, that have afforded so many opportunities to priestcraft in some cases, and to superstition in others, to impose those defects upon the world as prophecies of Jesus Christ.
Finding no direct meaning in them, and not knowing what to make of them, and supposing at the same time they were intended constructing essay items have a meaning, they supplied the defect by inventing a meaning of their own, and called it his. I have however in this place done Isaiah the justice to rescue him from the claws of Matthew, who has torn him unmercifully to pieces, and from the imposition or ignorance of priests and commentators, by letting Isaiah speak for himself.
If the words walking in darkness, and how to conclude a descriptive essay breaking in, could in any case be applied prophetically, which they cannot be, they would better apply to the times we now live in than to any other. The world has “walked in darkness” for eighteen hundred years, both as to religion and government, and it is only since the American Revolution began that light has broken in. The belief of one God, whose attributes are revealed to us in the book or scripture of the creation, which no human hand can counterfeit or falsify, and not in the written or printed book which, as Matthew has shown, can be altered or falsified by ignorance or design, is now making its way among us: I pass on to the seventh passage, called a prophecy of Jesus Christ.
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Matthew viii, 16, That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias [Isaiah] the prophet, saying, himself took our infirmities, and bare our sickness. It had not existence at any other time. The books of the Old Testament mention no such thing; the people of the present day know of no such thing; nor does the history of any people or country speak of such a thing.
It starts upon us all at once in the book of Matthew, and is altogether an invention of the New Testament makers and the Christian Church. The book of Matthew is the first book where the word devil is mentioned. We read in some of the books of the Old Testament of things called research paper on thyroid spirits, the supposed companion of people called witches and wizards.
It was no other than the trick of pretended conjurers to obtain money from credulous and ignorant people, or the fabricated charge of superstitious malignancy against unfortunate and decrepit old age. But the idea of a familiar spirit, if we can affix any idea to the term, is how to conclude a descriptive essay different to that of being possessed by a devil.
In the one case, the supposed familiar spirit is a dexterous agent, that comes and goes and does as he is bidden; in the other, he is a turbulent roaring monster, that tears and tortures the body into convulsions. Reader, whoever thou how to conclude a descriptive essay, put thy trust in thy Creator, make use of the reason He endowed thee with, and cast from thee all such fables.
The passage alluded to by Matthew, for as a quotation it is how to conclude a descriptive essay, is in Isaiah, liii, 4, which is as follows: Here is nothing about casting out devils, nor curing of sicknesses. The passage, therefore, so far from being a prophecy of Christ, is not even applicable as a circumstance. Isaiah, or at least patilsamuu77.000webhostapp.com chapter, liii, in lamenting the sufferings of some deceased persons, of whom he speaks very pathetically.
It is a monody on the death of a friend; but he mentions not the name of the person, nor gives any circumstance of him by which he can be personally known; and it is this silence, how to conclude a descriptive essay is evidence of nothing, that Matthew has laid hold of, to put the how to conclude a descriptive essay of Christ to it; as if the chiefs of the Jews, whose sorrows were then great, and the times they lived in big with danger, were never thinking about their own affairs, nor the fate of their own friends, but were continually running a wild-goose chase into futurity.
To make a monody into a prophecy is an absurdity. The characters and circumstances of men, even in the different ages of the world, are so much alike, that what is said of one may with propriety be said of many; but this fitness does not make the passage into a prophecy; and none but an imposter, or a bigot, would call it so. Isaiah, in deploring the how to conclude a descriptive essay fate and loss of his friend, mentions nothing of him but what the human lot of man is subject to.
All the cases he states of him, his persecutions, his imprisonment, his patience in suffering, and his perseverance in principle, are all within the line of nature; they belong how to conclude a descriptive essay to none, and may with justness be how to conclude a descriptive essay of many. But if Jesus Christ was the person the Church represents him to be, that which would exclusively apply to him must be something that could not apply to any other person; something beyond the line of nature, something beyond the lot of mortal man; and there are no such expressions in this chapter, nor any other chapter in the Old Testament.
It is no exclusive description to say of a person, as is said of the person Isaiah is lamenting in this chapter, He was oppressed and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before his shearers is how to conclude a descriptive essay, so he openeth not his mouth.
This may be said of thousands of persons, essay on load shedding in karachi have suffered oppressions and unjust death with patience, silence, and perfect resignation.
Grotius, whom the Bishop [of Llandaff] esteems a most learned man, and who certainly was so, supposes that the person of whom Isaiah is how to conclude a descriptive essay, is Jeremiah. Grotius is led into this opinion from the agreement there is between the description given by Isaiah and the case of Jeremiah, as how to conclude a descriptive essay in the how to conclude a descriptive essay that bears his name. If you want to read more about it, which was about seven hundred years after the time of Isaiah.
Mark makes this passage to be a prophecy of John the Baptist, she how to conclude a descriptive essay has written a book American Wife: Term paper help from job application letter for gym instructor experts Term paper season coming up. Mark makes this passage to be a prophecy of John the Baptist, said by the Church to be a forerunner of Jesus Christ?
What does the story tell us about the characters.